By looking at the current statics about the weather, we can easily predict where the world is going in terms of global warming. If we do not take the step now, it will be too late. To contribute to cancel the effects of global warming, some bold steps are taken such as shifting the power source from fossil fuel to green electrical energy. Many vehicles are now electrically powered. Similar is the case with an electric scooter. They are the same as the normal scooter but are now powered by electrical forms. When the powered source shifted to an electrical source, there were many factors to be taken under consideration for its proper functionality and efficiency. those factors are the electrical system of the scooter, batteries, controller, motor, acceleration, and brakes.
The electrical system of Electric Scooter
The electrical system of the scooter is quite like the normal scooter. Its system is as such the handle have throttle which takes command from the human and it sends a signal to the controller. The controller decodes that signal and notifies the battery about the power to be released to the motor. Then the motor's job is to rotate the wheel which results in moving the scooter in the directed direction. This will be the flow diagram if we look at it:
The controller is the most under-appreciated part in such vehicles because it does its job all the time from the start till end. Its function is like the manager of the system. It tells all the components what to do at that time and at what speed or rate it should be done. It does so by controlling the flow of current to the components. The more the current, the faster that component will work. In simple terms, it can be said it is the brain of the electric scooter.
As the controller controls the flow of current, it means although it is directly connected to all components, it is also the batteries. Batteries are the heart of the electric scooter. The better the battery, the longer the lifespan of the scooter. There are four types of batteries in this market: Lithium- Ion, Nickel-Metal Hydride, Lead-Acid, and Ultra-capacitors. The most popular ones are lithium-ion and lead-acid. They differ in cost, efficiency, temperature, life cycle, and weight. The comparison of these batteries can be seen from the following table:
From the table above it can be concluded that nickel-metal hybrid battery and ultracapacitor battery does not have a life span of long period and are expensive and have less temperature performance. This is the reason for the popularity gain of lithium-ion batteries and lead-acid batteries. These are the batteries that are usually used in electric vehicles as the source of power. The comparison of these two batteries are as follow:
By analyzing the above table, we can conclude the reason for the popularity of both batteries especially the Lithium-ion battery.
Motor and acceleration
The battery takes command from the controller in analog form and forwards that amount of current to the motor. The motor is the component that takes the electrical power from the battery and converts it to mechanical energy to do its work that is the rotation of the wheel. The more power the battery will supply to the motor, the faster the motor will rotate the wheels and hence the faster the speed will be achieved i.e. acceleration. If the driver keeps on twisting the throttle, again and again, the controllers will continue to get a signal to be sending more current to the motor. The highest speed of the electric scooter is the highest capability of the motor to rotate.
As the driver is driving, at a certain point he might want to slow down or stop, for those purposes there are brakes. Two major categories of brakes are mechanical and electrical. Mechanical brakes are of the conventional brakes that is the disc and drum attach the wheel which is controlled by the handle on the handlebar
connected through wire. When the handle is pressed, the wire is pulled, and the disc grips the wheels and resists them from moving. The foot brakes are the brake applied from the foot, as it sounds.
The other types of brakes that are electrical also have further two types i.e., regenerative, and electronic brakes. Regenerative brakes are the brakes that use the kinetic energy and heat of the vehicle as their source of power to perform its functionality. Electronic brakes are the brakes that are powered by electrical power to stop or slow the vehicle. When the brakes are pressed, the component in it, that is the actuator, functions to stop or slow the vehicle.
The electric scooter is environmentally friendly and an easy-to-use vehicle. They are improving in terms of performances day by day. Everything has its pros and cons. The biggest con about it is its charging. It got limited battery time, which means it can only cover a certain distance in one go. With time, when electric vehicles will gain their right full popularity then everywhere there will be an electric station for charging. So, this problem will not be a problem anymore.